Because, in many cases the children have parents who with a little bit of help will be able to care for their children themselves. And not always they understand that their children are handed over forever.
Read the below translation
Original text: Haïti : quand adoption rime avec transaction
Haiti: when adopting rhymes with transaction
(Syfia / Haiti). Haiti is one of the main "suppliers" of adoptable children. A quasi-commercial sector has settled, based on the law of the market rather than on a logic of child welfare. Many adopted children still have their parents ...
On the tarmac of the overheated Toussaint Louverture Airport in Port-au-Prince, not a day goes by without a child in Haiti embarks an international flight, accompanied by his adoptive parents or representative of an adoption agency. Many go to Europe: Haiti has indeed become a major "supplier" of adoptable children: the first for France, one of the main for Belgium and Switzerland. More than 400 young Haitians are adopted each year in France and fifty in Belgium. In this country, their number is declining, "Especially after a campaign denouncing the bad adoption practices in Haiti, "said Gerrit De Sloover, vice-Honorary Consul of Belgium in Haiti, a consultant on issues international adoption.
From 300 to 400 in the 1990s, the number of international adoption files of Haitian children filed per year in Port-au-Prince, Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) is now between 1 000 and 1 500. Exactly 1 367 for the period October 2007 to October 2008. This increase results from the fact that Haiti is one of the rare countries not to have ratified the 1993 Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in international adoption, which sets a clear ethical framework and establishes the principle that a child is adoptable when no family can host it in the country.
Often driven by a genuine desire for a child on the side of parents, international adoption appears in the field to be a real business. In 2005, the procedure could cost the adoptive between 5 000 and 6 500 $ U.S. on average, according to UNICEF, including attorneys' fees incurred by nurseries and those proceedings. Today, we approach the $ 10,000 U.S.. The offer has always existed on the Haitian side, shows Sloover De Geer, but demand has increased recently. Children's homes have therefore multiplied in the country. In 2008, 66 nurseries were accredited by the IBESR (against 47 in 2005), mostly in Port-au-Prince. But their control by the institute is problematic, given the lack of resources of the institution and lack of will on their part. According to the Deputy Director of IBESR himself, Mr. Casseus, nurseries would be much more numerous than those accredited by the Institute, "almost two hundred, 'he says, without seeming very certain. According to UNICEF, "international adoption through private organizations who have not received permission is unfortunately possible. "I know of cases where not recognized nurseries subcontract to accredited creches, "said Gerrit De Sloover. Because "sometimes, some have not enough children 'in stock' explains X. V., Director for ten years of a nursery in Port-au-Prince. They will therefore look elsewhere "to meet the desires of adoptive parents. "I received many emails from parents, always the same: ''We have the authority to adopt, we seek a child, a daughter,'' 'she says.
Purely formal control
The little ones who have "defects" are not very popular: older or sick children have little chance of being adopted and some nurseries who focus solely on international adoption do not accept them. Moreover, the majority of children adopted from Haiti have always an alive parent, either both, either one of them, an aunt, a grand mother ... from which they are literally "bought" to be entrusted to adopters. "It seems that some nurseries give money to the family, "says Mr. Casseus. The most common is that people related to the nursery actively seek poor mothers and their offer to their young children for adoption. "Once the papers signed, they will explain them what adoption is. It is not illegal, but illegitimate and abusive, "said Gerrit De Sloover, although he considers that these cases are less numerous than in India.
Sometimes the initiative comes from parents. There was much talk of sale of children in Haiti. The case of a mother who sold both her children for his 500 gourds (10 €) made noise. "The parents, unable to care for their children, place them, "said X. V. The absence of social security, of guarantees for old age, and high Infant mortality rates are pushing parents to have many children in the hope that some will take care of them later. To the deputy director of the IBESR, many parents are aware what they do when they place their child in a nursery, and and sooth themselves with the illusion by thinking that someday they will make them travel ... The Haitian law, in fact, does not recognize itself plenary adoption that involves breaking ties of biological filiation. It thus comes into conflict with many Foreign laws. In giving their consent, many parents are not well informed, and more, a majority sign documents they can not read.
Limiting individual adoption ...
According to Haitian law currently IBESR has no obligation to check the veracity of the families' consent before an adoption decision is taken to court. Only the presence in the records of administrative and legal paperwork holds, the same goes for the consulates also involved before departure. "It's a purely administrative work at the end of the process, "said Gerrit of Sloover. "For years, the criteria were not applied. Today, the procedure is fairly slow, because they tend to be more strictly. They started asking for more papers for the adoption, which has primarily been a source of more corruption, " said X. V. From six months to a year ago, the time may now be two and a half years. "Much is left to personal interpretation of judges and officials in the management of cases, said Gerrit De Sloover. The concept of 'easy case' is fairly elastic. X. V. sighs: "The nurseries suffered so much pressure ... If you did not pay, the case dragged on for months and months, and adoptive parents accuse you of not being as fast as other nurseries. No nursery responsible obviously will tell you he pays ... " The embassies also exert pressure on the Haitian authorities, not to increase the controls, but to expedite the process. A draft law was tabled in Parliament, but it is not likely to be adopted in the short term. However, the responsibility falls also on the adopting countries. Some, like France, accept steps taken by individual prospective parents, who turn directly to a Haitian nursery. 90% of the children "exported" from Haiti to Hexagon follow this path. Elsewhere, individual adoption is limited and parents are obliged to go through approved adoption agencies, where the procedure is known longer. "But what is needed is more control on the ground, "said another manager manger. The IBESR believes that also should "the consent procedure for parents Haitians needs to be strengthened so that they are well aware of the implications of the actions they take." But, paradoxically, the salary of the Institute staff is paid, in part, with revenues from adoption records filed: 5 000 gourds (100 €) per file. Even incomplete or problematic, many are accepted ...
"We signed for 18 years"
Kettelie Wesh lives in Soleil 17, in Port-au-Prince. In 2005, violence corrodes the area. Kettelie heard of women in the neighborhood who had "placed" their child in kindergarten for international adoption. This is how she met le Blan (foreigner) she shows on a yellowing photograph with her daughter, Jenny. He is a pastor, supported by a network of Churches in the United States to manage a nursery in Hait oriented towards international adoption, but also helps some families care for their children. "If I could have, I would have put all my children.” In October 2005, she brought the youngest, Jenny, 4 years, most likely to be adopted because it is a girl, still small.
"Le Blanc told us that even if the child leaves, you remain the mom. That you will always be in communication with her, even if you can not see her and at 18 years, she would come back to meet you. He added that when Blans will take your child in Haiti, they have the courtesy to come and meet you to explain what will be the child's life. That you will always be have news about the child. "
In October 2007, Jenny moved to the United States. Kettelie received some photos. But since a year and a half, no news. The white Pastor left without that she knew and his former driver in turn took over the nursery. "When we come to ask about our children and we do a scene outside his door, he sends the police. I have already been arrested. "
The children adopted from Haiti, for the most part, have parents still life, but who can not raise them. These sign consent to adoption, often without being aware of what it implies. "We signed for 18 years, claims Lucienne Ophelia, whose daughter left for Germany at the age of 5 years. She stayed one year in the nursery. I went to see her from time to time. I received a picture the first six months after her departure. Then, nothing: neither photo nor news. She will be 16 years. "Lucienne awaits her return in two
years: "In my neighborhood, everyone says that I have sold my child." "We wanted to seek a better life for our child, but we never thought we were going to lose her, "testifies
Kettelie. And when, exceptionally, photographs arrive, nurseries change envelopes before giving them to parents, "so that no one finds a trace of the child "says Emilio Rafael with a faint voice, the father of two small children adopted to France in 2001 and he is without new since 2003.